long a as in fate as in father
short a as in fat as the first a in apart
ae as i in machine as ai in aisle
au as aw in bawl as ou in house
c before a, o, u: as in cat
before e, i, y, ae, oe: as in center
always as in cat
ch as c in cat or ch in church as ckh in blockhead
long e as in me as in they
short e as in pet as in pet
ei as in height as in rein
eu at beginning of word: as in Europe
within word: as in rheumatism
as Latin e + u, run together rapidly
g before a, o, u: as in get
before e, i, y, ae, oe: as in gem
always as in get
long i as in ice as in machine
short i as in pin as in pin
consonant i (j) as j in jam as y in yes
long o as in clover as in clover
short o as in not as in off
oe as i in machine as oi in oil
ph as in philosophy as in up hill
r as in English trilled as in Spanish
t as in table
before i: as in nation
always as in table
th as in theater as in hothouse
long u as in rude as in rude
short u as in tub as in put
ui as w in we as in ruin
v as in English as w in we
long y as in my as u in French pur
short y as in cynical as in French du or ü in German über