Who Needs This?

Most scientific literature written before 1800 is in Latin. To read it, scientists or historians have few choices. They can learn Latin--if they have time. They can have a scholar trained in classical Latin literature translate it--but classical Latin differs in vocabulary, style and content from modern scientific Latin.

Today, botanists still use Latin to describe new species of plants, algae, and fungi, and all biologists give new species Latin names. They too have the same few choices for translation.

I offer another choice. A trained biologist, I am also trained in the Latin language, and have over 20 years of experience translating Latin scientific writings into English and botanical descriptions into Latin.


Latin Scientific Writings to English

Send me Latin technical writings in botany, zoology, geology, medicine (including herbal medicine), or pharmacology. The writings may be as short as a word or as long as a book. I will send you a clear translation in English.

Botanical Descriptions

Send me an English description or diagnosis of a taxon of plant, alga, or fungus and I will quickly send you a translation in clear botanical Latin. Please feel free to send any drawings or photographs of your organism, as they can help me to write the most accurate translation possible.

If you already have a Latin description or diagnosis of a plant, alga, or fungus, I will review it and correct any typographic, grammatical, and syntactical errors.


For texts up to about 200 words long, I will send a translation to you within one week. A longer text or a confusing text will take longer. I will promptly notify you of any delay longer than a week.

For fastest service, e-mail me. If you prefer, write me at the postal address listed under “Rates and payment” below. I'll send your translation by e-mail or snail mail, whichever you prefer.

Rates and payment

For translations of texts of up to 25 words in the original language, US $1.25 per word.

For translations of texts of more than 25 words in the original language, US $85 per hour. I bill in 15-minute increments. Minimum charge is US $35.

For review of Latin botanical descriptions, US $60 per hour. Minimum charge is US $15.

I try to get translations right the first time and will not charge for revisions or corrections.

You will receive an invoice by e-mail with the translation.

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You may pay by credit card (through PayPal--instructions will be on the invoice), or by check or international money order in U.S. funds. Please make checks or money orders payable to Mark A. Garland. If you mail payments, please send them to:

Scientific Latin Translations, Post Office Box 78161, Greensboro, North Carolina 27427, U.S.A.


Mark Garland has over 20 years of experience in Latin, biology (particularly plant taxonomy and the rules of botanical nomenclature), and older Latin literature in geology and medicine More...